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Astronomy

NameDiscoverySatellitesDiameterWeightVolumeSurfaceRotation periodPeriod of revolutionAverage orbital speedInternal structureStructure of the AtmosphereGeological ages
Solar system
Inner Solar System
Inner planets
Mercury Prehistory 3.3022×1023 kg 0.055 Earths 6.083x1010 km3 0.056 Earths 7.48×107 km2 0.147 Earths 58.646 day 1407.5 h 87.969 1 d 0.240 846 a 0.5 MSD 47.87 km/s Crust: 100–300 km thick Mantle: 600 km thick Core: 1,800 km radius
  • O2: 42%
  • Na: 29%
  • H2: 22%
  • He: 6%
  • K: 0.5%
Pre-Tolstojan (4.6-4 billion years), Tolstojan (4-3.9 billion years), Calorian (3.9 to 3.5 or 3.0 billion years), Mansurian (3.5 or 3.0 to 1.0 billion years), Kuiperian (1.0 billion years to present)
Venus Prehistory 4.868 5×1024 kg 0.815 Earths 9.38×1011 km3 0.866 Earths 4.60×108 km2 0.902 Earths 224.700 69 day 0.615 197 0 yr 1.9 VSD 35.02 km/s
  • CO2: 96.5%
  • N2: 3.5%
  • SO2: 0.015%
  • Ar: 0.007%
  • H2O: 0.002%
  • CO: 0.0017%
  • He: 0.0012%
  • Ne: 0.0007%
Earth Prehistory Moon 5.9736×1024 kg 1.08321×1012 km3 510,072,000 km2 0.99726968 d 23h 56m 4.100s 365.256363004 days 1.000017421 yr 29.78 km/s 107,200 km/h Lithosphere (0-60 km), Crust(0-30 km), Upper mantle (35-60 km), Mantle (35-2890 km), Asthenosphere (100-700 km), Outer core (2890 - 5100 km), Inner core (5100 - 6378 km)
  • N2: 78.084%
  • O2: 20.946%
  • Ar: 0.934%
  • CO2: 0.035%
  • Ne: 0.001818%
  • He: 0.000524%
  • CH4: 0.00017%
  • Kr: 0.000114%
  • Precambrian
    • Hadean
      • Cryptic
      • Basin groups
      • Nectarian
      • Early imbrian
    • Archean
      • Eoarchean
      • Paleoarchean
      • Mesoarchean
      • Neoarchean
    • Proterozoic
      • Paleoproterozoic
        • Siderian
        • Rhyacian
        • Orosirian
        • Statherian
      • Mesoproterozoic
        • Calymmian
        • Ectasian
        • Stenian
      • Neoproterozoic
        • Tonian
        • Cryogenian
        • Ediacaran
  • [no name]
    • Phanerozoic
      • Paleozoic
        • Cambrian
        • Ordovician
        • Silurian
        • Devonian
        • Carboniferous Mississippian
        • Carboniferous Pennsylvanian
        • Permian
      • Mesozoic
        • Triassic
        • Jurassic
        • Cretaceous
      • Cenozoic
        • Paleogene
        • Neogene
        • Quaternary
Mars Prehistory (2) Phobos, Deimos 6.4185×1023 kg 0.107 Earths 1.6318×1011 km3 0.151 Earths 144,798,500 km2 0.284 Earths 779.96 days 2.135 Julian years 686.971 days 1.8808 Julian years 24.077 km/s
  • CO2: 95.32%
  • N2: 2.7%
  • Ar: 1.6%
  • O2: 0.13%
  • CO: 0.08%
  • H2O: 0.021%
  • NO: 0.01%
  • Ne: 0.00025%
  • HDO: 0.000085%
Noachian (4.5-3.5 billion years), Hesperian (3.5-2.9 billion years), Amazonian (2.9-present)
Dwarf planet
Ceres 9.43 ± 0.07x1020 kg 2 850 000 km2
Asteorid belt
Outer Solar System
Outer planets
Jupiter (67) Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Themisto, Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Carpo, S/2003 J 12, Euporie, S/2003 J 3, S/2003 J 18, S/2011 J 1, S/2010 J 2, Thelxinoe, Euanthe, Helike, Orthosie, Iocaste, S/2003 J 16, Praxidike, Harpalyke, Mneme, Hermippe, Thyone, Ananke, Herse, Aitne, Kale, Taygete, S/2003 J 19, Chaldene, S/2003 J 15, S/2003 J 10, S/2003 J 23, Erinome, Aoede, Kallichore, Kalyke, Carme, Callirrhoe, Eurydome, S/2011 J 2, Pasithee, S/2010 J 1, Kore, Cyllene, Eukelade, S/2003 J 4, Pasiphaë, Hegemone, Arche, Isonoe, S/2003 J 9, S/2003 J 5, Sinope, Sponde, Autonoe, Megaclite, S/2003 J 2
  • H2: 89.8±2.0%
  • He: 10.2±2.0%
  • CH4: 0.3±0.1%
  • NH3: 0.026±0.004%
  • HD: 0.0028±0.001%
  • C2H6: 0.00058±0.00015%
  • H2O:
Saturn (62) S/2009 S 1, Pan, Daphnis, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Aegaeon, Mimas, Methone, Anthe, Pallene, Enceladus, Tethys, Telesto, Calypso, Dione, Helene, Polydeuces, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Phoebe, Paaliaq, Skathi, Albiorix, S/2007 S 2, Bebhionn, Erriapus, Skoll, Siarnaq, Tarqeq, S/2004 S 13, Greip, Hyrrokkin, Jarnsaxa, Tarvos, Mundilfari, S/2006 S 1, S/2004 S 17, Bergelmir, Narvi, Suttungr, Hati, S/2004 S 12, Farbauti, Thrymr, Aegir, S/2007 S 3, Bestla, S/2004 S 7, S/2006 S 3, Fenrir, Surtur, Kari, Ymir, Loge, Fornjot
  • H2: 96.3±2.4%
  • He: 3.25±2.4%
  • CH4: 0.45±0.2%
  • NH3: 0.0125±0.075%
  • HD: 0.011±0.0058%
  • C2H6: 0.0007±0.00015%
Uranus 13.03.1781, William Herschel (27) Cordelia, Ophelia, Bianca, Cressida, Desdemona, Juliet, Portia, Rosalind, Cupid, Belinda, Perdita, Puck, Mab, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Francisco, Caliban, Stephano, Trinculo, Sycorax, Margaret, Prospero, Setebos, Ferdinand
  • H2: 82.5±3.3%
  • He: 15.2±3.3%
  • CH4: 2.3%
  • (H2) HD: 0.0148%
Neptune (13) Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Triton, Nereid, Halimede, Sao, Laomedeia, Psamathe, Neso
  • H2: 80.0±3.2%
  • He: 19.0±3.2%
  • CH4: 1.5±0.5%
  • HD: 0.0192%
  • C2H6: 0.00015%
Dwarf planet
Pluto
Haumea
Makemake
Eris
Comets
Trans Neptunian Region

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